The TriGrid® Delivery System has been used for delivery of nucleic acid candidates encoding antigens, proteins and monoclonal antibodies in numerous mammalian and avian species.


  • Enhanced nucleic acid delivery in vivo[1]
  • Favorable performance over other vaccination approaches  [2][3]
  • Electroporation procedure adapted for use in 15 animal species  [4]
  • Extensive GLP safety characterization [5]
  • > 50 peer reviewed publications demonstrating enhanced nucleic acid delivery and improved efficacy

Delivery of the reporter gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein demonstrateing that intramuscular administration with the Ichor® TriGrid (left) dramatically enhances gene expression compared to conventional DNA injection (right).


[1] Luxembourg A, Hannaman D, Ellefsen B, Nakamura G, Bernard R.  Vaccine 24(21): 4490-4493 (2006). Article from Publisher

[2]Best SR, Peng S, Juang C, Hung C, Hannaman D, Saunders JR, Wu TC, Pai SI.  Vaccine. 27(40): 5450-5459 (2009). Article from Publisher

[3] Livingston BD, Little SF, Luxembourg A, Ellefsen B, Hannaman D . Vaccine. 28(4): 1056-1061 (2010). Article from Publisher

[4] van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S, Luxembourg A, Ellefsen B, Wilson D, Ubach A, Hannaman D, van den Hurk JV.  Vaccine. 26(43): 5503-5509 (2008). Article from Publisher

[5] Dolter KE, Evans CF, Ellefsen B, Song J, Boente-Carrera M, Vittorino R, Rosenberg TJ, Hannaman D, Vasan S.  Vaccine. 29(4): 795-803 (2011).  Article from Publisher